Halloween Fashion Week

Tired of being the same ol’ skeleton for Halloween? Looking for a costume to stand out in the crowd? Want to rack up those likes on Instagram? Look no further as we present some spooktacular Halloween costumes inspired by Mother Nature and her fantastic creatures. Although the Halloween culture in Singapore isn’t that strong, you never know when you need some killer costume ideas. From classic to cute to completely vile, we have it all covered in this post.

Classic Colours

halloween crab
Dressed perfectly for Halloween! (Photo: https://i.pinimg.com/736x/0a/e8/02/0ae802a869cfd2c005d71a9b9d4d93a9–rare-animals-strange-animals.jpg)

If you’re looking to fit in with the Halloween colours of black, orange and yellow, you should certainly be inspired by the Halloween crab (Gecarcinus quadratus). This vibrantly coloured land crab inhabits mangroves, rainforests and sand dunes along the Pacific Coast. It’s basically dressed for Halloween – a black carapace with yellow spots, legs that are a mix of pumpkin orange and blood red and a splash of purple on its claws. These crabs create an underground system of burrows for shelter and brumation (a state similar to hibernation that cold-blooded animals use during cold weather) close to a water source. Like how Halloween comes to life at night, these crabby creatures are nocturnal as well and only forage at night.

Costume idea: Wear an entirely black outfit to follow the crab’s body. You could have some splashes of yellow on your shirt. Paint your arms purple and your legs orange and red. You’re welcome for this crab-tivating costume 😉

Fresh Fusion

tufted deer.jpg
A one-of-a-kind combination (Photo: https://www.biolib.cz/IMG/GAL/271622.jpg)

Some people dress up as deer. Some people dress up as vampires. What if you want to be both?

Be like the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).

This unusual creature is a small deer that inhabits mountainous forests across southwest China and northeastern Myanmar. Possessing a tuft of long, blackish hair from the forehead and large, sturdy upper canines, the tufted deer is a perfect combination of cute and scary. Male deer have tiny antlers which are almost hidden by the hair tuft. They either travel alone or in pairs and are most active during dusk and dawn. Unfortunately, very little is known about this species and it’s believed that population numbers are decreasing significantly.

Costume idea: Get those $2 antlers and fake fangs from Daiso. Put on a brown outfit, spike up part of your hair with some gel and you have yourself an awesome costume. Plus, you get to spread the message about these threatened creatures when people come up to you with a bewildered look!

Foul Fowl

marabou stork.jpg
The Undertaker (Photo: http://creepyanimals.com/2013/04/marabou-stork/)

Maybe you don’t want to fit in with the Halloween colours or look cute. That’s totally fine – this last option should fulfil your desire to look evil. One fine specimen to imitate is the Marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumenifer). This stork is a massive wading bird that can grow up to 167cm. Combined with its cloak-like wings and back, skinny white legs, it’s no wonder that “The Undertaker” is its nickname. The Marabou also possesses a huge bill and a distinctive pink gular sac at its throat.

These birds are scavengers and having a featherless head is their way of avoiding messing up their plumage when feeding on animal carcasses. The storks aren’t fussy about what they eat as they have been known to consume human garbage such as shoes and metal. Unfortunately, human feeding has conditioned some Marabou storks to react aggressively when humans refuse to feed them. Reports of children being killed by Marabous are not unheard of in southern Africa.

Costume idea: To achieve this look, an all-white outfit is ideal. You should stuff a pink sock with cotton balls and tie it around your neck. Attach a cone to your nose to imitate that humongous bill. Putting on a pink bald cap and a black cape would make your costume more authentic. You may also lash out at people if they refuse to give you food.

So there you go, 3 drastically different costume ideas which you will definitely not find anywhere else. We guarantee that all heads will turn as you strut down the street in these outfits. Happy Halloween and enjoy the festivities with your family and friends (if you still have any after wearing these costumes)!


Stephenson, K. (2015). 8 Things to Know Before Getting a Halloween Moon Crab. Petful. Retrieved 27 October 2017, from https://www.petful.com/other-pets/halloween-moon-crabs/

Stempien, A. (2017). 7 Animals That Were Made For Halloween. Smithsonian Science Education Center. Retrieved 27 October 2017, from https://ssec.si.edu/stemvisions-blog/7-animals-were-made-halloween

Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker’s mammals of the world (Vol. 1). JHU Press.

Geist, V. (1998). Deer of the world: their evolution, behaviour, and ecology. Stackpole books.

7 Scary Bird Species | Holbrook Travel. (2012). Holbrooktravel.com. Retrieved 27 October 2017, from http://www.holbrooktravel.com/blog/birding/7-scary-bird-species

Hancock, J., Kushlan, J. A., & Kahl, M. P. (2010). Storks, ibises and spoonbills of the world. A&C Black.

Words by: Tan Hui Xin


Intertidal Watch

It is a truth universally acknowledged that trudging around in the mud is the greatest of joys.

Just kidding I made that up. But I know that deep within you, a wild spirit calls for the embrace of dirt and the salt of the sea. If, like me, you derive considerable happiness from being damp and muddy, you’re probably perfect for the Intertidal Watch.

Heard of citizen science? It’s an initiative undertaken all over the world to involve the public in data collection, mostly through simple surveys that anyone can learn to do. Counting birds, for example. Or butterflies. With the help of volunteers from the public, agencies like the National Parks Board can accumulate comprehensive information about the environment over years and years, something that has become increasingly important as we anxiously observe the effects of climate change taking the world by literal storm. That’s the unromantic and frankly depressing explanation. The romantic explanation is that we all have within us an innate curiosity, a sense of wanting to go out there and discover the world. That’s science at its foundation. It doesn’t matter what you studied or what you’re good at; if you have a clipboard and pen, you can be a scientist.

A citizen scientist, anyway.

The Intertidal Watch is one of those citizen science programmes, created and conducted by NParks. It is an effort to study the biodiversity on our shores during the low tide. That’s when the sea retreats from the land, leaving a few precious metres of muddy beach that’s just teeming with life. Hermit crabs, sea cucumbers – you name it, we’ve spotted it – wriggling on the beach. Volunteers step gingerly around these creatures and take pictures of them like enthusiastic tourists; more importantly, they count and record the species and number of organisms present. This information is then carefully entered into NParks’ database, to be used by conservationists and researchers who make decisions on how to manage Singapore’s coastline.

I myself joined this programme as a volunteer just last year. It was all very simple: I went to their booth at the Festival of Biodiversity, saw a picture of a knobbly sea star and immediately signed up to be on their mailing list. Knobbly sea stars have that irresistible seduction.

Ever seen anything so charming? Feel free to marvel at the quaint asymmetry (Photo: Qiu Jiahui)

Once you’re on their mailing list, you’ll be notified when they conduct a survey or training workshop. It’s best, though not strictly necessary, to go for a training workshop before embarking on your first survey. You’ll learn about the surveying method, how to identify the different types of flora and fauna on the various beaches, as well as how to record information reliably and succinctly. After that, you’ll be ready for your first citizen science experience.

Depending on the time of year and the tides, the survey can be conducted from the middle of the sweltering afternoon to the crack of dawn. At present, the surveys are mostly limited to a few beaches such as Changi Beach and East Coast Park, but plans to include other coasts are underway.

Recycling old plastic bottles and taking showers instead of baths are excellent and necessary ways of protecting the environment, but if you’re itching to do more, why not go out into the environment itself? Not only is it deeply meaningful, you’ll also get to know the side of Singapore that too many people miss out on: its rich and slightly wacky biodiversity. So don’t hesitate! Plan an unforgettable outing with your friends, take your date to see the sunrise and sea cucumbers – all you have to do is drop NParks a little email at Intertidal_Watch@nparks.gov.sg.

group photo.jpg
See you there! (Photo: Gwendolyn Chow)

Words by: Qiu Jiahui


BES Drongos is 3!

How time flies! It seems like just yesterday when the idea of having a nature guiding group was conceived by a few Bachelor of Environmental Studies (BES) undergraduates wanting to share their love for nature with the public. 3 years down the road and having trained generations of BES students, let us now take a trip down memory lane to see how BES Drongos has grown over the years.

Follow that monkey?

Ever wondered how our namesake came about? Well, we named ourselves after the Greater Racket-tailed Drongo (Dicrurus paradiseus), one of a few iconic birds in the Central Catchment area. These birds are extremely intelligent, with the ability to mimic the alarm calls of other birds so as to scare them away and steal the food left behind by them. Sneaky, but also really clever, aren’t they?

2015.9.23 Petai Nick - GRTD (1).JPG
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo on Petai trail (Photo: Nicholas Lim)
First trail

Our first ever public trail launch on 4 October 2014 was rained out on; what a way to begin! Nevertheless, our opening weekend on 11 and 12 October 2014 received fabulous support. Since then, Drongos has reached out to more than 500 participants over 3 years, and we certainly hope to see more of you at our trails!

12oct14 opening wkend
Opening weekend trail on 12 October 2014 (Photo: Jacqueline Chua)
Conservation booths

Besides bringing people close to nature, we have also brought nature closer to people. Drongos has regularly held conservation booths to showcase our local biodiversity to the masses. With specimens from the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, the public has never failed to be amazed by what’s out there in the wild in Singapore.

On the web

Apart from physical outreach, we believe in the power of social media to garner support for our cause. Our Drongos don’t just guide; many have different talents in photography, drawing and writing!

Below we present to you a small selection of artwork by our resident artists, but be sure to check out our Facebook page and WordPress for more amazing content!

What’s next?

Over the years, the Drongos flock has expanded, with volunteer guides from all batches of BES. We are also currently training up a new batch of guides, so do look forward to seeing them on our trails!

Drongos flock at the beginning of 2017 (Photo: Nicholas Lim)

Looking forward, we are excited to be taking part in more outreach events to bring our love for nature to more people. For one, BES Drongos will be taking part in the NParks Parks Festival 2017 at Pasir Ris Park taking place on 28 October. We also have 2 more public trails happening on 21 October and 4 November, so do sign up for an enriching time with us!

With that, our #throwback is over but we look forward to many more great years ahead for BES Drongos. And we certainly hope YOU will be a part of this exciting journey ahead!

Words by: Angela Chan

Header illustration by: Ashley Tan


Universal Children’s Day!

Ever wondered how Children’s Day came about?

According to TimeandDate, 2017, the UN General Assembly recommended all countries to introduce a new annual event in 1954 in hopes of promoting fraternity and understanding between children all over the world.

That’s right! This event is called Universal Children’s Day! The UN General Assembly also suggested all countries to set an appropriate date with respect to their own country. Singapore has, since 1961, set Children’s Day as October 1. It was only in 2012 that the Ministry of Education decided to move this event to the first Friday of October (Chew, 2016).

Let’s now delve into the event with some interesting facts of young of animals and how we can relate to them (Because hey, why should they be excluded?):

  1. Young Orangutans stay with mum until they are seven or eight, having the lengthiest childhood among great apes (Beening, 2015). That is almost twice or more the amount of time for human babies to become fully weaned (two to four years)!


  2. Once born, a giraffe calf can stand up and walk in one hour (Beening, 2015)! Humans need about a year after birth before they are able to walk. This could be because giraffe calves have to be able protect themselves in the wild while human babies are protected from birth.


  3. Young Panamanian golden frogs, unable to defend themselves unlike the fully toxic adult, hide until they do so with their skin secretions (Beening, 2015). Humans do not have toxic skin secretions to protect ourselves even as we mature but we do have plenty of places to hide in, like buildings, all our lives!


  4. At about five months, rhino calves begin the growth of their iconic horns (Beening, 2015). While humans do not have a “iconic” body part, one of the most important body part, the brain, grows to 80% of adult size by age two, imagine the amount of nutrients we need from birth till then!


  5. Dogs have 28 teeth as puppies but mature to have a full 42 (James, 2014). Humans however start with only 20 when young (10 on top and bottom each) and 32 when grown up.


  6. Before eggs hatch, chicks can “talk” to one another and mum by cheeping through the egg (James, 2014). Imagine if humans could do that! Too bad fetuses only communicate by kicking~


  7. If a squirrel finds an abandoned squirrel baby, it will adopt the orphan (James, 2014). I believe humans do have this culture too, in a place called the orphanage.


  8. Young chimpanzees make dolls using sticks and rocks, then have fun with them by scolding, feeding, and cuddling them (James, 2014). Looks like we aren’t the only ones with toys! Animals have their own version of Barbie dolls too.


  9. Many eagle chicks perform homicide on siblings to gain access to more and better food from mum (James, 2014). Aren’t you glad this does not happen to us? Phew.


  10. Young elephants suck their trunks for comfort (ViralForest, 2015). This might be similar to how it is a natural instinct for human babies to suck and therefore leading to the invention of pacifiers!

There you have it! Happy Children’s Day to all!! 😀


Chew, H. M. (2016). Children’s Day on Oct 7: How it is celebrated around the world. Retrieved from: http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/childrens-day-on-oct-7-how-it-is-celebrated-around-the-world

Timeanddate (2017). Universal Children’s Day. Retrieved from: https://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/un/universal-childrens-day

James, O. (2014). Amazing Babies: Facts About Young Animals. Retrieved from: https://www.phactual.com/amazing-babies-facts-about-young-animals/

ViralForest (2015). The 24 Most Adorable Animal Facts… OF ALL TIME. Retrieved from: http://www.viralforest.com/the-24-most-adorable-animal-facts-of-all-time/

Beening, J. (2015). 14 Adorable Baby Animal Facts. Retrieved from: http://blogs.sandiegozoo.org/2015/10/15/14-adorable-baby-animal-facts/

Words by: Joseph Chu

Full moon is here!

The time of the year that the moon is at its brightest, roundest and fullest has finally come! Today is the Mid-Autumn Festival, one of the loveliest Chinese festivals. For Chinese families, it’s a day for family gathering, moon-gazing and of course, indulging in delicious mooncakes.

When it comes to Mid-Autumn Festival, what comes to your mind must be mooncakes, lanterns, and (maybe) the legends related to it. However, this post is not going to be about any of them! Because today, October 4th, is also World Animal Day! World Animal Day is a social movement which aims to raise the status of animals in order to improve welfare standards around the globe, making the world a better place for all animals (find out more here: https://www.worldanimalday.org.uk/). So, to celebrate both the Mid-Autumn Festival and World Animal Day, let us tell you about the story of the moon and the animals associated with it ~

Chapter 1: The Time Keeper

Most animals, including humans, have bodily rhythms governed by the sun. However, the moon also controls several mysterious circadian clocks in many animals, both marine and land, and especially nocturnal creatures.

How does the moon clock work? The moon provides time cues to animals via two ways: changes in moonlight and tides. These two environmental cycles are the result of the lunar cycle (the number of days required for the Moon to orbit around the Earth) and the lunar day (the number of hours required for the Moon to travel by the same spot on Earth). These environmental changes can be perceived by animals and plants, cueing them to behave in certain ways and perform certain activities at certain timings to survive in the wild.

During full moon, corals are all ready to make babies

For hundreds of species of corals, the full moon sets the great atmosphere for lovemaking. Corals keep close watch for changes in moonlight. As the full moon arrives, corals release huge amounts of eggs and sperm into the water at the same time – a mass-spawning event and one at the most massive scale on Earth. This mass coral spawning event just happened in Singapore in April 2017!

Coral spawning in Singapore (Source: The Straits Times/ NParks; http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/environment/mass-coral-spawning-less-intense-this-year)

Researchers had found that corals are able to perceive the blue region of the visible light spectrum and are extremely sensitive to the spectra that match that of the blue moonlight. By synchronizing spawning, the free-floating sperm and eggs have a higher chance to come into contact with one another and undergo fertilisation in the vast ocean. This lovemaking event always occurs on or near a full moon.

Turtles ride waves onto shore during high tide to lay eggs

While the moonlight tells corals when to spawn, tidal changes inform sea turtles on when to lay their eggs. Females of most species come ashore at night during high tide to lay their eggs on the beach.

Light changes during the lunar cycle not only represent time cues to many species, but also affect the animals’ use of senses.

Chapter 2:  The Compass

Not only do species rely on moonlight to tell time, some also use the moon to navigate their way to find food and go back home!

“Just keep walking, just keep walking”

Under a dark night sky, newly hatched baby sea turtles depend on moonlight reflecting off the ocean surface to guide them toward the sea. Just in August, 32 Hawksbill turtle hatchlings were sighted at Each Coast Park, trying to find their way to the sea!

hawksbill hatchling
Hawksbill turtle hatchling at East Coast Park in August (Source: NParks Facebook)

Besides sea turtles, dung beetles also use polarized moonlight as a compass to roll its ball of poop in a straight line in order to escape competitors.

Chapter 3: A fine dinner under the moonlight

Dining under the moonlight may be a romantic scene to us, but how is it like in the animal kingdom?

Let’s play hide and seek

Full moons shine extra light onto the landscape. Many predators in the animal kingdom take advantage of this, and find it easier to spot and hunt their prey. Nightjars and owls were found to be more efficient in foraging when there is moonlight, and avoid activity at dark nights. It may seem that predators have an edge as the moon brightens. However, many prey have also stepped up their game. During bright nights, prey dramatically reduce their night activity and go into hiding. There are also prey which find it easier to detect and evade predators, and are daring enough to increase activity levels. Doodlebugs, the larvae of dragonfly-like insects called antlions, dig bigger holes to trap insect prey during full moon nights as the prey are more active.

Antlion larva (Source: http://somethingscrawlinginmyhair.com/2012/11/28/ant-lion-from-larva-to-adult/)

Chapter 4: Losing the moonlight

Light is important to both humans and wildlife. Lightbulbs are seen as one of the greatest inventions of all time. However, in today’s world, our use of light has become so excessive that it is disrupting the natural patterns of light and dark, altering the behaviour of wildlife and functions of ecosystems. The baby sea turtles found at East Coast Park were found to be circling on the beach. The bright streetlights were distracting the hatchlings, and they were unable to follow the moonlight to the sea.

Every flip of a light switch is contributing to altering natural patterns of mating, migration, feeding, and pollination, at a rate which species are unable to adapt. Not only does ecological light pollution affect wildlife, studies have shown that it has profound impacts on human health too. Nocturnal light disrupts our sleep and confuses our circadian rhythms. After all, humans are animals as well.

As you enjoy your mooncakes and appreciate the full moon tonight (if it is visible), we hope that this post will increase your appreciation of the importance of the moon to both humans and wildlife, and encourage you to reduce and fight light pollution!

Happy Mid-Autumn Festival! 中秋节快乐!


Bogard, P. (2013). Bringing Back the Night: A Fight Against Light Pollution. Retrieved from: https://e360.yale.edu/features/bringing_back_the_night__a_fight_against_light_pollution

Poppick, L. (2013). How the Moon Affects the Nocturnal World. Retrieved from: https://www.livescience.com/37927-how-moon-affects-nocturnal-animals.html

Grant, R.A., et al. (2009). The lunar cycle: a cue for amphibian reproductive phenology? Retrieved from:  http://www.amphibianark.org/pdf/Husbandry/The%20lunar%20cycle%20a%20cue%20for%20amphibian%20reproductive%20phenology.pdf

Kronfeld-Schor, N., et al. (2013). Chronobiology by moonlight. Retrieved from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsb/280/1765/20123088.full.pdf

Hansford, D., et al. (2017). Sex, Death, and Pollination: How the Moon Changes Life on Earth. National Geographic. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/07/moonlight-behavior-circadian-chronobiology-earth-live-animals/

Tan, R. (n.d.). Mass Coral Spawning. Retrieved from: http://wildshores.blogspot.sg/search/label/coral%20spawning#.WdMwaWiCzIU

SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment. (n.d.). Sea Turtles Reproduction. Retrieved from: https://seaworld.org/animal-info/animal-infobooks/sea-turtles/reproduction/

Words by: Ho Lijean