Cute and tenacious, one of the most well-known and prevalent animals in Singapore is none other than the Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fasicularis). Also known as the Crab-eating Macaque, these intelligent creatures have even been observed to make and use tools for foraging. While we at Drongos love and appreciate Singapore’s resident monkeys, some Singaporeans have had less positive experiences with these macaques.
Along with their intelligence, long-tailed macaques have also been associated with mischief and trouble, especially among those that live near their natural habitats. Residential areas bordering forest fringes where these macaques live (like near Bukit Timah Nature Reserve) are prone to macaque “intrusion”. There have been reports of food being stolen from houses or even cases of macaques causing damage to property. In fact, ever since Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) opened their a 24-hour hotline for animal-related issues, there has been an increase in the number of complaints on macaques specifically. Unfortunately, the only response to these complaints is to simply cull these macaques who are merely acting on instinct.
In 2015 alone, AVA reported (and we note that these are only the reported numbers) that over 2,500 animals were euthanised including 623 monkeys. Riley, Jayasri and Gumert (2015) found that there exists at most only 1,900 wild long-tailed macaques in Singapore and this translates to over 30% of the macaque population being culled! Not only is this cruel, but according to MP Louis Ng, such widespread culling does not target the root cause, and other measures need to be considered to tackle the issue. Specifically, it is highlighted that because only young and inexperienced macaques are caught and killed, more young macaques will continue to be born to “disturb” residents or parkgoers. From this, it is clear that culling is not only futile, but it has been argued that it also hinders progress by preventing the necessary discourse to promote human-macaque co-existence (Yeo & Neo, 2010).
As seen by the guide above, AVA and NParks have provided ways to reduce this human-macaque conflict in households. In addition to these measures, we also propose another method as a peaceful and sustainable alternative to culling – monkey guarding! Our friends over at the Jane Goodall Institute (Singapore) provide “Monkey Guards” training which teaches the security officers to peacefully guide the macaques away or scare them off. We also highlight that this extends to affected home-owners (and even the general public) so that they too can learn how to deter macaques safely and effectively should they need to. The last training date was 15th September 2018, and though they have yet to update the website for the next one, do keep a lookout if you are interested!
Educating the public on how to interact with wildlife is indeed a better solution for human-wildlife conflict in Singapore. On the other hand, culling is a quick and easy method to seemingly deal with the problem but, as mentioned, it is also one that can actually hinder the promotion of co-existence. By understanding that it is natural for animals like the long-tailed macaques to be resourceful in finding food and even more so in aggressively defending themselves if they feel threatened, monkey guarding serves as a great first step to general human-wildlife conflicts. We believe that this is a crucial part of learning to co-exist with the wildlife in Singapore, especially if we consider the fact that our growing urban areas constantly encroach natural habitats, causing such conflicts.
For a highly developed island, Singapore’s natural landscape is limited yet vibrant – this is as good a reason as any for us to cherish and protect it together with all the animals that support and sustain it. As such, it is incredibly important that we be mindful of our actions and interactions with the wildlife that we live alongside. As NParks is slated to take over AVA’s role in managing such animal-related issues, perhaps it is also a good opportunity to reconsider our policies, initiatives and responses to animal conflicts.
Riley, C. M., Jayasri, S. L., & Gumert, M. D. (2015). Results of a nationwide census of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) population of Singapore.
Yeo, J. H., & Neo, H. (2010). Monkey business: human–animal conflicts in urban Singapore. Social & Cultural Geography, 11(7), 681-699.