What are the millennials up to lately?

Self-centred, self-absorbed, self-entitled. They are always on their phones, can’t let go of what they love, and seriously, they always think they deserve better in this world.

They are the millennials the society all so frown upon this day… right?

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Article posted by The Straits Times last week!

If you have seen young people watching their instagram feed every moment at noon on 15 March, looking disconnected and dissatisfied with the world, you have probably just encountered someone who has joined the Global Climate Strike 2019 (Tan, 2019). And he or she is probably more conscious about her surrounding and the world than you did at that moment.

Advocating for greater climate action is no longer the sole responsibility of climate scientists or influential businessmen and politicians; the young ones are taking charge, telling the world how the future generations deserve better and how the planet deserve better.

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Greta Thunberg (in yellow) the 16-year-old millennial who started this movement!

The global climate strike was a concerted effort of thousands of students from all over the world. In many of the countries, the students were skipping school and physically coming together to show the grown-ups that one doesn’t need to be rich and powerful to demand a change from the world.

Despite the growing movement towards sustainable development, climate change scepticism still prevails. This clearly shows that we should no longer rely on the scientists and statisticians to persuade the authorities and the general public.

In Singapore, where strikes and protests are not an option, the young people chose to make their voices heard by having a virtual strike on social media.

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Post for the Global Climate Strike from local advocates @theweirdandwild and @tingkats.sg

Several of the climate action and sustainability pioneers in Singapore have also expressed their support for this initiative. Singapore, as the forefront of urban development in Asia, has the ability to lead and set an example on sustainable development for the region (Hermes, 2019). While the booming trend of adopting zero-waste lifestyle such as ditching single use plastic straws and other disposable products used to be criticised as simply a fad, the fact that a growing number of young people have stayed religiously faithful to their commitment shows that the millennials in Singapore are ready to be the change they have envisioned.

Indeed, the millennials are still self-centred, self-absorbed and self-entitled. However, the sense of “self” has grown out of the stereotyped individualism. To the fervent advocates of climate actions and environmental sustainability, they feel the sense of entitlement not for themselves but for the environment, they are so stubborn that they refuse to budge from their pledges to slow climate change and most of all, while the world label millennials to be full of themselves, their belief that every individual has a power to change allow them to push forth many successful ground-up initiatives in the past years.

The strike may be over, but climate change doesn’t stop, and neither should our climate actions!

Written by: Andrea Law

References:

Tan, A. (2019, March 11). Global youth movement on March 15 calling for greater climate action may be held in Singapore as well. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/environment/global-youth-movement-on-march-15-calling-for-greater-climate-action-may-be

Hermes. (2019, March 15). Strike by Singapore students unlikely. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/world/strike-by-spore-students-unlikely

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Banking on Sustainability

You might have noticed these sleek white boxes popping up around your town recently:

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Photo: Qiu Jiahui

If you’ve ever been curious enough to peruse their charming infographics, you’ll know that they’re collecting non-perishable food items from the general public, so that they can be delivered to the food insecure population in Singapore, rather than collect dust on mistake-prone shoppers (it happens to the best of us ;)).

I, too, was curious… Curious enough to travel all the way down to their warehouse on Keppel Road, which serves as the headquarters for this simple, spirit-lifting operation!

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Photos: Qiu Jiahui

That’s it! This is where the food you drop off in their boxes is stored, sorted, and carted off to over 300 beneficiaries ranging from family service centres, nursing homes and childcare centres. An office the size of a regular school classroom and a storage space the size of a regular school hallway are where a tiny organization brings their big ambition to life – and the issue at hand is certainly huge. FoodBank Ltd was born when sibling entrepreneurs Nichol and Nicholas Ng discovered the magnitude of Singapore’s food waste problem.

As a land-scarce nation, Singapore has only one landfill for waste disposal – Semakau Landfill, which does not accept organic waste (Tan & Khoo, 2006). Thus, food waste is largely incinerated, generating huge quantities of carbon emissions. In 2002, for example, Singapore produced almost 500,000 tons of food waste, 94% of which was incinerated (Lang, 2008). In 2004, slightly over 300,000 kg of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide emissions were generated per ton of food waste (Tan & Khoo, 2006). The implications of this overwhelming excess on Singapore’s overall carbon footprint are obvious.

Meanwhile, 12-14% of Singaporeans are living under the unofficial poverty line of $1500 in income per month (Loh, 2011), and by extension experience food insecurity.

FoodBank aims to close the gap between these two issues, eradicating their ironic coexistence in a fast-paced, extravagant Singapore. Though we’ve seen the quaint little warehouse where excess goodies from the wealthier spectrum of our society are stored, the real genius in this operation is that it largely takes place on the go. FoodBank knows that powdered Milo, biscuits and candy are far from enough, so in addition to facilitating the donation of non-perishables, its programmes include:

  1. A fresh food truck that collects fruits and vegetables rejected from supermarkets and wholesalers for solely cosmetic reasons,
  2. The Food Rescue Project, which whisks away excess cooked meals from the kitchens of reputable hotels and restaurants, and
  3. Joy in Every Bundle – bundle pledges for members of the public to fund balanced food packages for beneficiaries.

When you think about it, our food is needlessly thrown away through countless pathways, often even before they get the chance to reach our plates. For example, at Pasir Panjang Wholesale Centre, inspectors who need to work quickly will examine fruits and vegetables by the carton, and if they spy even one blemished item, the entire carton is discarded. That adds up. Three times a month, FoodBank’s van dutifully pulls up to the centre, fills to the brim with these fruits and vegetables, and distributes it to rental flats around Singapore. It’s hard not to think of what the situation looked like before FoodBank came along: all these riches, turned to rubbish, and on the same island where thousands of poor are living.

With that in mind, I asked an employee what she thought the organization could really use right now, and the answer is: long-term volunteers. Sorting and organizing the food items requires some training, and having nothing but ad-hoc volunteers means that the staff spends a lot of time teaching new volunteers, only to have them leave in a week. Consistent volunteers would save some of that time, and be able to train up newer ones as well.

If you are interested, do drop by their website and check out how you can get involved:

One more thing: this is going to seem trivial, but if you have a lot of used cardboard boxes around, well, the ones that they have at the warehouse are getting a little worn out. And of course, check out their website to participate in their various programmes, learn more about the food waste issue, and make a donation to help out with transport costs (you may have noticed that there is a great deal of transport involved). Wastage in general is awful, but food waste is downright painful. There’s a hole in our system, and it’s time to plug it.

Written by: Qiu Jiahui

References:

Lang, J. C. (2008) Zero Landfill, Zero Waste: The Greening of Industry in Singapore In Leapfrogging Development In Emerging Asia: Caught Between Greening and Pollution. pp 151-172. New York, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Loh, J. (2011) Bottom Fifth in Singapore. Social Space. 88-90. Retrieved from https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=lien_research

Tan, R. B.H. & Khoo, H. H. (2006) Impact Assessment of Waste Management Options in Singapore. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56:3, 244-254, DOI: 10.1080/10473289.2006.10464463

 

Do You Eat to Live or Live to Eat?

There exists two extreme groups of people in this world: those who eat more than they need and those who struggle to get enough to survive. Even if you fall into neither of the groups, we’ve all probably been guilty of food wastage before!

Either way, it is clear that much of humanity’s dietary choices are slowly killing this planet.

The EAT-Lancet Commission recently published a report detailing the environmental unsustainability of a modern-day diet – high in red meat but low in vegetables. According to the UN, livestock contributes to at least 14% of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions which is equivalent to the emissions of all vehicles combined! If this is not alarming enough, think about it as being responsible for half the total global GHG emissions by the year 2030.

The reason for this is the large amount of methane emitted by livestock and the need for grains to feed them. On the other hand, having a plant-based diet drastically reduces the level of GHG one would emit. Dr. M. Sanjayan from Vox shared in a video that an average of 330g of CO2 is produced for every serving of beef, 74g for any cheese and 14g of CO2 is emitted for every serving of vegetables or rice and a shocking 2g for lentils.

Before we start accusing Lancet of trying to brainwash everyone into adopting veganism or vegetarianism, this is absolutely not the case!

What the EAT-Lancet Commission is proposing is the adoption of a Planetary Health Diet that is similar to the Mediterranean diet – one that is largely plant-based with moderate consumption of dairy and low consumption of red meat.

Based on the planetary health diet, it is recommended to reduce our food consumption by one serving of red meat per week, one ounce of white meat and fish and a quarter of an egg per day. This is equivalent to simply eating less of one serving of beef rendang, one serving of chicken (as in a plate of chicken rice), one tuna sandwich and 2 eggs every week.

I know it’s difficult… but you can do it!

Here is a food guide for the Planetary Health Diet:

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While it seems stringent, the nutritious value does not fall short of the 2000 kcal needed by an average adult every day.

If changing personal diets can save the planet, then what are we waiting for?

Unfortunately, there are problems equally, if not more pressing, than the sustained high GHG emissions; the global food system impacts not only the rich but also the poor. It is indeed applaudable that the first world countries persist in their pursuit to alleviate issues such as global warming and environmental degradation as a result of the global food system. However, as we overcome these issues through breakthroughs in sustainable food production methods one after another, we must never overlook the fact that there is way more people who are overfed than those that are malnourished in the world.

According to the Guardian, while around 820 million people worldwide are underfed, over 2.6 billion people are at the same time either overweight or obese, and many of these cases arise due to poor dietary choices.

Hence, beyond just informing the world about making better dietary choices, the Planetary Health Diet could potentially be tailored to achieve better food distribution around the world.

This begs the question: how do we make such a radical change to the food systems in the world?

It is not uncommon for individuals to lack motivation when it comes to drastic lifestyle changes. Therefore, more top-down approaches can be adopted to induce a greater change in people. Perhaps, on top of the “healthier choice” label in dining places, dishes that adhere to the Planetary Health Diet guide can be marked out to give consumers a better indication of the better choices that they can make.

So, to all those faced with the first-world problem of deciding what to eat every other meal, the Planetary Health Diet could very well be your solution!

Written by: Andrea

References:

Barclay, E. (2019, January 24). The way we eat could doom us as a species. Here’s a new diet designed to save us. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/2019/1/23/18185446/climate-change-planet-based-diet-lancet-eat-commission

Carrington, D. (2018, November 28). Global food system is broken, say world’s science academies. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/nov/28/global-food-system-is-broken-say-worlds-science-academies

Of Changing Colours, Bubble Tea and Ink Jets

One is not like the other… 

 

Did you guess which is the odd one out? If you guessed that the image in the middle is different, you are right! Although similar looking, those are not bubble tea pearls, but rather, cuttlefish eggs. Sounds bizarre? Well, they can be found right here on our Singapore shores!

Cuttlefish belong to the class Cephalopoda, which includes the octopus and more similar-looking squid. So first, how do we tell cuttlefish (Sepiidae family) apart from squids (Teuthida family)? Both of these marine mammals are molluscs, and while they do not have the characteristic shells of clams, they have stiff structures within their bodies.

Squids have a squid pen, which feels somewhat like plastic to the touch.

 

For cuttlefish, they have a porous cuttlebone which is used for buoyancy. It is also used as a calcium supplement for birds, and even acts as casts for metal jewellery as it is easy to carve yet resistant to the high heat of liquid metal.

The streamlined torpedo shape of squids helps them to move quickly in water, while the wider, stout cuttlefish moves more slowly with the rippling long fins along the sides of their bodies. In addition, while squids have round pupils like us humans, cuttlefish pupils are w-shaped.

Now that we know how to better tell apart the cuttlefish from their similar looking squid cousins, what is so special about the cuttlefish?

First, cuttlefish have three hearts which pump greenish-blue blood. This is due to copper-containing proteins which transport blood, as compared to iron-containing haemoglobin proteins in humans. Like other cephalopods, cuttlefish can squirt ink to confuse predators as an escape measure. While cuttlefish are unable to discern colour, they can change their body colours through the use of pigment containing cells called chromatophores. Furthermore, they are able to change their body texture too!

During the mating season, males have to compete to mate with a female, with larger males usually gaining the upper hand and getting to mate. How do smaller males get their shot at reproduction? Some of them make use of their camouflage skills and disguise themselves as females, allowing them to sneak up to females to mate! And that is how these black or white bubble tea, pearl-like eggs are formed 😉 Cuttlefish can be commonly found seasonally on our shores and tend to be found near seagrass meadows. I personally saw a clutch of cuttlefish eggs hatching at the intertidal area of Changi Beach!

While it might seem more accessible to appreciate terrestrial wildlife, it is also possible to get up close with marine or coastal wildlife such as these unique cuttlefish in Singapore! In fact, I managed to see these cuttlefish eggs while on a guided walk through the Changi Intertidal. Some guided nature walk programmes include free walks by NParks, and paid programmes by organizations such as the Lee Kong Chian Musuem and Young Nautilus.

There’s much biodiversity to be found in Singapore, as long as you know where to find them! 😊

Written by: Choo Min

References:

Ebert, Jessica (2005). “Cuttlefish win mates with transvestite antics”. News@nature. doi:10.1038/news050117-9.

Spencer, E. (2018, September 13). How to Tell the Difference Between Squid and Cuttlefish. Retrieved from https://oceanconservancy.org/blog/2017/04/07/how-to-tell-the-difference-between-squid-and-cuttlefish/

Tan, R. (2016, October). Cuttlefishes. Retrieved from http://www.wildsingapore.com/wildfacts/mollusca/cephalopoda/sepiidae.htm

Tan, R. (2016, October). Cephalopods. Retrieved from http://www.wildsingapore.com/wildfacts/mollusca/cephalopoda.htm

Yeo, R. (2012, December 6). Cephalopods (Phyllum Mollusca: Class Cephalopoda) of Singapore. Retrieved from http://tidechaser.blogspot.com/2012/12/cephalopoda-of-singapore.html

Journey to Becoming a Rockstar: Discovering Geography in Ubin

As a reader of this blog, you might already know plenty about the amazing biodiversity in Singapore, ranging from pitcher plants to crocodiles. While these flora and fauna are certainly interesting, have you read about the amazing life of rocks in Singapore? If not, sit tight as I introduce to you one of the many types of rocks in Singapore!

Seemingly unimportant, yet found everywhere, Singapore has a surprisingly large variety of rocks despite our small size. I would even argue that they are the bedrock (pun intended) of every aspect of the Singapore we know and love today. Before we begin, allow me to give you a quick crash course about rocks.

Understanding Rocks

There are 3 types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

Firstly, we have igneous rocks. Derived from the Latin word for fire, these rocks are formed from solidified lava or magma (Rocks Information, 2017). These rocks are generally hard and can be commonly found in Bukit Timah and Pulau Ubin (Friess & Oliver, 2015). Picture 1 depicts granite, an igneous rock.

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Picture 1: Granite, an igneous rock. , Taken from: http://geologylearn.blogspot.com/2015/03/granite.html

Secondly, we have sedimentary rocks. As its name suggests, these rocks are formed by sediments. Transporting agents like rivers transport and deposit these sediments, causing them to pile up. With layers of sediments piling on top of one another, the bottommost layers eventually fuse together to form a new type of rock (Rocks Information, 2017). Such rocks can be found in Jurong and Sentosa (Friess & Oliver, 2015). Picture 2 depicts sandstone, a sedimentary rock.

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Picture 2: Sandstone, a sedimentary rock., Taken from: https://www.minimegeology.com/home/mgeo/page_84/banded_sandstone_sedimentary_rock.html

Thirdly, we have metamorphic rocks. When igneous or sedimentary rocks experience high temperatures and pressures, they transform (or undergo metamorphosis) to form metamorphic rocks (Rocks Information, 2017). These rocks are the least common ones in Singapore due to the lack of high pressure and temperature we usually need to form them (Friess & Oliver, 2015). Picture 3 depicts gneiss, a metamorphic rock.

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Picture 3: Gneiss, a metamorphic rock., Ttaken from: http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/earth/metamorphicrocks.html

Armed with some basic background information about rocks, let us now go on a virtual field trip in Pulau Ubin through my phone lens.

Pulau Ubin

For those who have never been there, Pulau Ubin is an Island located in northeastern Singapore. Despite experiencing no geologic activity today, Singapore saw frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions a mere 250 million years ago (Friess & Oliver, 2015). “Old” Singapore was comparable to today’s Indonesia. The upwelling of magma and the occasional volcanic eruptions translate to a large amount of igneous rocks being formed. Most of Singapore, Pulau Ubin included, sits on large igneous rocks.

Picture 1 above shows an igneous rock known as granite. It consists of visible grains of greyish-white feldspar, black mica and transparent quartz. These crystals are visible because the magma cooled slowly underground over a long period of time. Eventually, erosion of the land on top revealed these rocks. Since these rocks are more resistant to erosion (because of how hard they are), they result in the “hilly” appearance of Pulau Ubin (and Bukit Timah) (Friess & Oliver, 2015) as seen in the picture 4 below.

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Picture 4: Ubin is the dark coloured, hilly part of the picture in the background! Photo: Lee Yang

In our hot and wet climate, feldspar in granite weather quickly. Surfaces of granite exposed to water (especially the corners) decompose, causing the parent rocks to become smaller and rounder (Friess & Oliver, 2015). Such rounded rocks are common in Singapore, Ubin included. Picture 5 shows one of such rocks in the process of rounding. As we can see, most of the rock is still “trapped” underground and perhaps a few thousand years later, more of the rock will be exposed!

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Picture 5: One of the many granite rocks still stuck underground in Ubin. Photo: Lee Yang

Feldspar decomposes into clay, which is then transported by water and carried to the sea. In Chek Jawa, I saw a mini delta formed by a small river. In Picture 6 below, we can see the river as it heads into the sea and deposits the clay particles in the delta, forming the mud of the mangrove. Mangroves are very important habitats that provide many ecoservices such as being nurseries for fishes and coastal protection (Brander, et al., 2012), and one mightc say that without all this mud, the mangroves would not be present. On a side note, Picture 7 below shows a Black Spitting Cobra we encountered! Needless to say, the mangrove was teeming with life, and I argue that the geography (climate and geology included) of Singapore plays a fundamental role in sustaining Singapore’s high biodiversity. Hence, as we appreciate the diverse wildlife of Singapore, let us not forget the seemingly unchanging and boring rocks for breathing life into Singapore. I hope that this post has given a small preview of the complexity of the world and the beautiful web of relationships present, allowing you to better appreciate the Earth for everything it has and have made our planet just that bit more precious to you.

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Picture 6: Can you see all the clay deposited by the stream? Photo: Lee Yang

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Picture 7: A well camouflaged Black Spitting Cobra. Can you see it? Photo: Lee Yang

Written by: Lee Yang

References:

Brander, L. M., Wagtendonk, A. J., Hussain, S. S., Mcvittie, A., Verburg, P. H., Groot, R. S., & Ploeg, S. V. (2012). Ecosystem service values for mangroves in Southeast Asia: A meta-analysis and value transfer application. Ecosystem Services,1(1), 62-69. doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.06.003

Friess, D. A., & Oliver, G. J. (2015). Dynamic environments of Singapore. Singapore: McGraw Hill.

Rocks Information and Facts. (2017, January 18). Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/inside-the-earth/rocks/

A Vibrant Blue – The Butterfly Pea Flower

If you ever see any of your food coloured a bright blue, there’s a high chance you’re seeing the flower of the butterfly pea (also known as a blue pea) working its magic. Barely having any taste, it is frequently used as natural food colouring in Peranakan, Thai and Malay cuisine, such as in Kueh Salat or Nyonya rice dumplings5.

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Image by Shiokman Eddie. Retrieved from: https://www.shiokmanrecipes.com/2016/11/18/kueh-salat-kuih-seri-muka/

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Image by Angie Liew.

 http://www.huangkitchen.com/nyonya-rice-dumplings/

The butterfly pea flower changes from blue to purple when acid (in lemon) is added, making it visually appealing.

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Image by Cynthea Lam.

https://guide.michelin.com/sg/dining-in/beginners-guide-to-foraging-in-singapore/news

With blue being such a rare colour in nature, it is not hard to spot the bright blue flowers of the butterfly pea along the streets of Singapore. Being a creeper, they are often found to be growing on wire supports or walls, attached by intertwining their thin, slender legumes4. Even though they are so common here, it may be surprising to note that the butterfly pea may not be native to Singapore. In fact, they are so common across all the continents that it is not definite where they originated from; though they were believed to be from South America and Asia before they spread to India, Europe then finally to tropical Southeast Asia6.

To cultivators, the butterfly pea has value in its culinary uses and medicinal purposes, such as being believed to be able to alleviate inflammation in traditional medicine6. Characteristics such as high growth rates, ability to grow in poor soils and drought tolerance making them easy to grow and maintain2.

From here, some of the seeds were dispersed into the wild, and such hardy characteristics allowed them to thrive equally well in the wild. In some places such as Christmas Island, Hawaii and Queensland, they grew so well that they became invasive – threatening the growth of local, native species1. Despite being an introduced species, they can sometimes be beneficial to the environment. Being able to grow in poor quality soil allows them to survive in disturbed habitats such as coal mines. The butterfly pea was then able to increase the nitrogen level of soil and soil fertility, enhancing further revegetation efforts2.

The next time you see blue in your food, hopefully, it will remind you of the butterfly pea flower!

Written by: Shenny Goh

References:

1 Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea). Retrieved from: https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/55416#b69c866b-b16e-49de-b720-1dcade921e6f (last accessed 1 March 2019)

2 Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R. (2005). Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Retrieved from: http://www.tropicalforages.info/key/forages/Media/Html/entities/clitoria_ternatea.htm

3 Kwek Yan Chong, Hugh T. W. Tan and Richard T. Corlett. (2009). A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research National University of Singapore Singapore. Retrieved from: https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

4 NParks Flora & Fauna Web (n.d.) Clitoria ternatea (Pale Blue). Retrieved from: https://florafaunaweb.nparks.gov.sg/Special-Pages/plant-detail.aspx?id=1374 (last accessed 1 March 2019)

5 Quek, E. (2018, February 24). Butterfly pea flower lends a blue hue to foods from tea to pasta. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/lifestyle/food/butterfly-pea-flower-lends-a-blue-hue-to-foods-from-tea-to-pasta

6 Singapore Infopedia. (2016). Butterfly pea. Retrieved from: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_763_2004-12-20.html

7 The DNA of Singapore. (n.d.) Clitoria ternatea. Retrieved from: https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/522 (last accessed 1 March 2019)

Look At All This Global Warming

The other day I stumbled upon this on my twitter feed:

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Ironically, she’s making quite a good statement about climate change!

While I strongly believe that climate change deniers constitute a very vocal minority with an oversized internet megaphone, I still physically cringed when I saw that tweet. Fortunately, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that global warming is a real issue which can manifest itself in many ways (including more intense weather conditions like the blizzard the girl is posing in). In fact, there is an entire international group dedicated to quantifying climate change and its implications on the world – the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

The IPCC is UN’s massive team of scientists dedicated to conducting research on climate change; their main goal is to churn out reports that can inform governments on the ‘what’s, ‘why’s and ‘how’s of everything related to climate change. Just last year, they published SR15, a report which was honestly quite scary for someone like me who had only just begun to learn about the environment in depth.

Essentially, the report concluded that we must limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C instead of 2°C by 2030 (at the very latest) or we risk causing too much irreversible damage. The entire report itself is way too comprehensive and detailed for any average person to fully read through, which means that even their executive summary is 30 pages long!

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From the official IPCC website (click to be directed)

For Singapore and the SEA region in general, the main concerns include climate change’s impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. To put things into perspective, it is predicted that by 2050, a global temperature rise of 1.5°C will drive the decline of 70% to 90% of all coral reefs; with a rise of 2°C or more, more than 99% are at risk! It is indeed quite disheartening to think that it is possible see the loss of such large ecosystems in our lifetimes.

Beyond the risk of species extinction and shrinking marine populations, this may also affect our local food supply. With increasing ocean acidification and rising sea levels, global warming has already been observed to cause declines in the productivity of fisheries and aquaculture; considering the fact that crop yields and the nutritional value of these crops are also expected to diminish, this spells some trouble for global food security.

Apart from affecting marine resources, SR15 studied over 10,000 species and found that among them, 18% of insects, 16% of plants and 8% of vertebrates will lose more than half of their habitat ranges. This is definitely not surprising when you look at the spate of recent extinctions and a growing list of endangered species.

There are other implications as mentioned in SR15, of course, and I would recommend anyone truly interested to read the executive summary. Otherwise, here are some pretty neat infographics by WWF:

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Source: WWF at COP24

Fortunately, Singapore takes climate change quite seriously. In fact, the recent Singapore Budget 2019 addressed a bit of how our country has and will continue to adapt and mitigate. Quite in tandem with what SR15 suggests, we have a mix of adaptation and mitigation strategies in response to global warming. For instance, the budget includes how we have some infrastructural adaptations to rising sea levels and also some mitigation measures like restructuring diesel taxes. Notably, last year’s plan to implement a carbon tax has finally been implemented at the start of 2019.

As average Singaporeans, there’s so much we can do to contribute to the cause! Besides the usual advice of going vegetarian or using less disposables, it is also important to be open minded and help spread the good word to those that are not aware of the pressing issues surrounding climate change. Perhaps this is best done by inspiring a love for nature in them first, and perhaps this can be done by inviting them for a nature walk with us!

Written by: Afiq Sulaiman

The BES Drongos adventures on the Petai Trail and more!