Tag Archives: environment

A Rally Memorable Event

Singapore Climate Rally

On 21st September 2019, Singapore had her first ever climate rally. For some, this event was a monumental occasion – they had hopes that it will be the catalyst for greater climate action from the government.

If you were unable to attend the SG Climate Rally, here is a detailed account of my experience!

Pre-main event – Activities and Booths

When my friend and I reached Hong Lim Park at about 3.30pm, I was pleasantly surprised to see a tremendous turnout. The registration queue was long but also really quick as the smiling volunteers were hard at work in managing the crowd. Immediately as we entered the park, you could not only feel the blazing heat, but a fiery atmosphere full of passion and excitement to match!

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Sources say over 1,700 people turned out!

As the main event was slated to start at 4.45pm, we had plenty of time to explore the ‘booths’ (or Welcome Activities) and meet people. The “What on Earth is the Climate Crisis” booth was situated near the entrance, so this was the first activity we went to. Here, we could listen to the volunteers giving a crash course on the climate crisis (and related concepts) while also providing a safe space to discuss and ask questions about the whole topic! It was nice to see people openly talk about a wide variety of issues and their specific interests like geoengineering or environmental justice. Additionally, there was a quiz that you can attempt to test your knowledge on climate change 😛

The next booth which caught my eye was the Community Mural Painting; throughout the event, it was constantly being swarmed by people waiting to write or draw messages to express their thoughts and feelings towards the climate crisis! In fact, the volunteers had to roll out an extra banner just to accommodate more people.

Next, we headed to “A Postcard to My MP”. As the name suggests, the booth provided us with postcards, stamps and addresses for us to mail a letter to our MPs! Beyond expressing our concerns for the climate crisis to the government, this activity was also an introspective one for me. It really got me thinking about climate-related issues and what I personally hope an individual with power can and should do. Do I describe my fears and anxiety for the future and hope that their humanity understands mine? Or should I expect more from the ministers and demand something to be done, since it is a crisis after all? I found myself reflecting a lot about my role in environmental advocacy and what I should do as someone who wants to pursue this as a career – because of this, “A Postcard to My MP” was my favourite activity!

By the end of the activity, my friend and I were parched and proceeded to the water station to refill our bottles.

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BES Drongos guides Hoyan and Lydia volunteering for the event!

On the way, we saw many interesting signs that were quite well thought out! Some were also hilarious and uniquely Singaporean like “Respect Your Mother” and “O-Levels are soon, so is this irreversible climate crisis”. Here are some of my favourites but do check @SGClimateRally on Instagram for more!

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Unfortunately, we missed other activities like “Share Your Climate Crisis Story” and “Kids Read for Our Future” as it was already time for the main event – the speeches and the die-in.

Main event – Speeches

The speeches were all pretty neat. Each speaker had their own unique perspective (from an 11-year-old boy to an NGO’s co-founder) with their own take on the issue at hand. At the same time, there was a connecting theme between each speech – the weariness of being told about individual action which translates to the demand of the government and industries to take major action. I highly recommend anyone interested to visit The Online Citizen and watch the recorded speeches! Notably, I admire Oliver’s passion at such a young age and Karen’s wholesome honesty about her fears in speaking out to the government.

It makes no sense to me that we are told to switch off our lights when not in use, but the lights in Jurong Island never seem to be switched off – Ho Xiang Tian

Main event – Die-in

Honestly, I was quite skeptical about the whole “die-in” spectacle and felt that it was going to be an awkwardly uncomfortable experience. The idea was to have us “collapse domino-style” as a show of solidarity to everything we have lost to the climate crisis; thereafter, we can extend our reach to neighbouring attendees as a symbol of the interconnectedness between all things. Even as I type it now, the concept still seems quite peculiar to me!

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Taken form @SGClimateRally instagram!

Alas, perhaps it was because of the impassioned speeches right before, or perhaps it was because of the activity lead who was listing off all the elements of the 6th mass extinction, but the actual die-in felt surprisingly poignant. Despite whatever feelings you have for this segment of the event, I think that it made the rally a whole lot more memorable. Just like the annual Pink Dot, the die-in was SG Climate Rally’s big spectacle that had involved all attendees and meant something profound.

Conclusion

I personally found Singapore’s first Climate Rally to be a huge success! The organisers definitely didn’t bite off more than they can chew and everything seemed to have gone quite smoothly. Despite the heat and haze, it was also refreshing to see people still so energetic about wanting more to be done. While I believe that such rallies will still be needed in the near future, it was amazing to see Singapore’s environment-based civil society come together to demand better.

Written by: Afiq

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Singapore’s National Bird

If you have been walking around our “rural” parks and forests, you may have noticed a bright flash of red darting from shrub to shrub. What you have seen is most likely the crimson sunbird! It is an attractive and iconic species that can be found in Singapore.

What is the crimson sunbird?

The crimson sunbird, Aethopyga siparaja is a species of sunbird found in the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Southern China [1]. It inhabits a wide range of habitats ranging from parks and gardens to forests. Males have a distinctive crimson red plumage on the head, mantle and upper breast while females are drab, with olive green upperparts and yellower underparts [1]. Its diet consists largely of nectar and insects [2].

 

Where can they be found?

While the more common sunbirds such as the olive-backed sunbird can be found in urban areas and parklands, the crimson sunbird is less commonly seen outside of rural parks and forests in Singapore. The best places to find them would be the Central Catchment Nature Reserve or Bukit Timah Nature Reserve [1] which are not too urbanised.

 

The national bird of Singapore?

Back in 2002 [5], this iconic bird was designated the unofficial national bird of Singapore after it emerged winner in a poll organised by the Nature Society. Although nature groups have pushed for its status to be made official, no relevant ministries have declared so. At a dinner held as part of the 6th Asian Bird Fair in 2015 [6], there was a short-lived euphoria when it was mistakenly declared as the official national bird of Singapore. However, the crimson sunbird remains a popular choice as the national bird among Singaporeans.

Parting thoughts

While this species is still quite common in Singapore, they are not as commonly seen as other bird species. Hopefully, with the ongoing greening efforts utilising more native plant species, we will see more of them in our neighbourhood parks and gardens. Giving such an iconic species the official status as the national bird of Singapore would also pique people’s interest regarding Singapore’s natural environment, helping to raise awareness about the rich flora and fauna we have on this sunny island.

I hope you have enjoyed reading this entry! Till next time!

Written by: Ke Yao

References

[1]: https://singaporebirds.com/species/crimson-sunbird/

[2]: B. C. (1992). A Guide To The Common Birds Of Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Science Centre.

[3]: https://fryap.wordpress.com/2014/08/09/crimson-sunbird-in-singapore/#jp-carousel-2183

[4]: https://pixabay.com/photos/sunbird-bird-birds-doi-ang-khang-1863178/

[5]: https://singaporebirdgroup.wordpress.com/2015/11/01/crimson-sunbird-is-now-the-official-national-bird-of-singapore/

[6]: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/environment/is-the-crimson-sunbird-singapores-national-bird-er-not-official-yet

What are the millennials up to lately?

Self-centred, self-absorbed, self-entitled. They are always on their phones, can’t let go of what they love, and seriously, they always think they deserve better in this world.

They are the millennials the society all so frown upon this day… right?

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Article posted by The Straits Times last week!

If you have seen young people watching their instagram feed every moment at noon on 15 March, looking disconnected and dissatisfied with the world, you have probably just encountered someone who has joined the Global Climate Strike 2019 (Tan, 2019). And he or she is probably more conscious about her surrounding and the world than you did at that moment.

Advocating for greater climate action is no longer the sole responsibility of climate scientists or influential businessmen and politicians; the young ones are taking charge, telling the world how the future generations deserve better and how the planet deserve better.

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Greta Thunberg (in yellow) the 16-year-old millennial who started this movement!

The global climate strike was a concerted effort of thousands of students from all over the world. In many of the countries, the students were skipping school and physically coming together to show the grown-ups that one doesn’t need to be rich and powerful to demand a change from the world.

Despite the growing movement towards sustainable development, climate change scepticism still prevails. This clearly shows that we should no longer rely on the scientists and statisticians to persuade the authorities and the general public.

In Singapore, where strikes and protests are not an option, the young people chose to make their voices heard by having a virtual strike on social media.

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Post for the Global Climate Strike from local advocates @theweirdandwild and @tingkats.sg

Several of the climate action and sustainability pioneers in Singapore have also expressed their support for this initiative. Singapore, as the forefront of urban development in Asia, has the ability to lead and set an example on sustainable development for the region (Hermes, 2019). While the booming trend of adopting zero-waste lifestyle such as ditching single use plastic straws and other disposable products used to be criticised as simply a fad, the fact that a growing number of young people have stayed religiously faithful to their commitment shows that the millennials in Singapore are ready to be the change they have envisioned.

Indeed, the millennials are still self-centred, self-absorbed and self-entitled. However, the sense of “self” has grown out of the stereotyped individualism. To the fervent advocates of climate actions and environmental sustainability, they feel the sense of entitlement not for themselves but for the environment, they are so stubborn that they refuse to budge from their pledges to slow climate change and most of all, while the world label millennials to be full of themselves, their belief that every individual has a power to change allow them to push forth many successful ground-up initiatives in the past years.

The strike may be over, but climate change doesn’t stop, and neither should our climate actions!

Written by: Andrea Law

References:

Tan, A. (2019, March 11). Global youth movement on March 15 calling for greater climate action may be held in Singapore as well. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/environment/global-youth-movement-on-march-15-calling-for-greater-climate-action-may-be

Hermes. (2019, March 15). Strike by Singapore students unlikely. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/world/strike-by-spore-students-unlikely

Journey to Becoming a Rockstar: Discovering Geography in Ubin

As a reader of this blog, you might already know plenty about the amazing biodiversity in Singapore, ranging from pitcher plants to crocodiles. While these flora and fauna are certainly interesting, have you read about the amazing life of rocks in Singapore? If not, sit tight as I introduce to you one of the many types of rocks in Singapore!

Seemingly unimportant, yet found everywhere, Singapore has a surprisingly large variety of rocks despite our small size. I would even argue that they are the bedrock (pun intended) of every aspect of the Singapore we know and love today. Before we begin, allow me to give you a quick crash course about rocks.

Understanding Rocks

There are 3 types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

Firstly, we have igneous rocks. Derived from the Latin word for fire, these rocks are formed from solidified lava or magma (Rocks Information, 2017). These rocks are generally hard and can be commonly found in Bukit Timah and Pulau Ubin (Friess & Oliver, 2015). Picture 1 depicts granite, an igneous rock.

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Picture 1: Granite, an igneous rock. , Taken from: http://geologylearn.blogspot.com/2015/03/granite.html

Secondly, we have sedimentary rocks. As its name suggests, these rocks are formed by sediments. Transporting agents like rivers transport and deposit these sediments, causing them to pile up. With layers of sediments piling on top of one another, the bottommost layers eventually fuse together to form a new type of rock (Rocks Information, 2017). Such rocks can be found in Jurong and Sentosa (Friess & Oliver, 2015). Picture 2 depicts sandstone, a sedimentary rock.

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Picture 2: Sandstone, a sedimentary rock., Taken from: https://www.minimegeology.com/home/mgeo/page_84/banded_sandstone_sedimentary_rock.html

Thirdly, we have metamorphic rocks. When igneous or sedimentary rocks experience high temperatures and pressures, they transform (or undergo metamorphosis) to form metamorphic rocks (Rocks Information, 2017). These rocks are the least common ones in Singapore due to the lack of high pressure and temperature we usually need to form them (Friess & Oliver, 2015). Picture 3 depicts gneiss, a metamorphic rock.

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Picture 3: Gneiss, a metamorphic rock., Ttaken from: http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/earth/metamorphicrocks.html

Armed with some basic background information about rocks, let us now go on a virtual field trip in Pulau Ubin through my phone lens.

Pulau Ubin

For those who have never been there, Pulau Ubin is an Island located in northeastern Singapore. Despite experiencing no geologic activity today, Singapore saw frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions a mere 250 million years ago (Friess & Oliver, 2015). “Old” Singapore was comparable to today’s Indonesia. The upwelling of magma and the occasional volcanic eruptions translate to a large amount of igneous rocks being formed. Most of Singapore, Pulau Ubin included, sits on large igneous rocks.

Picture 1 above shows an igneous rock known as granite. It consists of visible grains of greyish-white feldspar, black mica and transparent quartz. These crystals are visible because the magma cooled slowly underground over a long period of time. Eventually, erosion of the land on top revealed these rocks. Since these rocks are more resistant to erosion (because of how hard they are), they result in the “hilly” appearance of Pulau Ubin (and Bukit Timah) (Friess & Oliver, 2015) as seen in the picture 4 below.

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Picture 4: Ubin is the dark coloured, hilly part of the picture in the background! Photo: Lee Yang

In our hot and wet climate, feldspar in granite weather quickly. Surfaces of granite exposed to water (especially the corners) decompose, causing the parent rocks to become smaller and rounder (Friess & Oliver, 2015). Such rounded rocks are common in Singapore, Ubin included. Picture 5 shows one of such rocks in the process of rounding. As we can see, most of the rock is still “trapped” underground and perhaps a few thousand years later, more of the rock will be exposed!

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Picture 5: One of the many granite rocks still stuck underground in Ubin. Photo: Lee Yang

Feldspar decomposes into clay, which is then transported by water and carried to the sea. In Chek Jawa, I saw a mini delta formed by a small river. In Picture 6 below, we can see the river as it heads into the sea and deposits the clay particles in the delta, forming the mud of the mangrove. Mangroves are very important habitats that provide many ecoservices such as being nurseries for fishes and coastal protection (Brander, et al., 2012), and one mightc say that without all this mud, the mangroves would not be present. On a side note, Picture 7 below shows a Black Spitting Cobra we encountered! Needless to say, the mangrove was teeming with life, and I argue that the geography (climate and geology included) of Singapore plays a fundamental role in sustaining Singapore’s high biodiversity. Hence, as we appreciate the diverse wildlife of Singapore, let us not forget the seemingly unchanging and boring rocks for breathing life into Singapore. I hope that this post has given a small preview of the complexity of the world and the beautiful web of relationships present, allowing you to better appreciate the Earth for everything it has and have made our planet just that bit more precious to you.

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Picture 6: Can you see all the clay deposited by the stream? Photo: Lee Yang

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Picture 7: A well camouflaged Black Spitting Cobra. Can you see it? Photo: Lee Yang

Written by: Lee Yang

References:

Brander, L. M., Wagtendonk, A. J., Hussain, S. S., Mcvittie, A., Verburg, P. H., Groot, R. S., & Ploeg, S. V. (2012). Ecosystem service values for mangroves in Southeast Asia: A meta-analysis and value transfer application. Ecosystem Services,1(1), 62-69. doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.06.003

Friess, D. A., & Oliver, G. J. (2015). Dynamic environments of Singapore. Singapore: McGraw Hill.

Rocks Information and Facts. (2017, January 18). Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/inside-the-earth/rocks/

Meat Lovers: Pitcher Plants

You’ve probably seen pitcher plants around. After all, they are a common sight in nurseries and at pasar malam markets. They are well known for being carnivorous, trapping small insects inside fluid-filled jugs where they unfortunately meet their sorry end. But what exactly are pitcher plants and why are they so different from normal plants?

The term “pitcher plant” generally refers to any carnivorous plant with pitchers that trap insects. This includes several families of organisms such as Nepenthaceae and Sarraceniaceae .

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Image: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090804081545.htm

So, how do these plants catch their prey? Basically, insects make a beeline for the pitchers, attracted by their colour or the smell they emit. However, when they stand on the peristome, also known as the edge of the pitcher, they fall in, landing in a pool of enzyme-containing fluids where they are slowly broken down into simpler nutrients such as amino acids [2] [3].

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Image: https://www.sciencesource.com/archive/-SS2521889.html

Pitcher fluid contains more than just insect-digesting enzymes. In fact, the components that make up the fluid of different types of pitcher plants vary. While generally acidic, the fluid in certain species are mostly made up of rainwater that collects in the pitcher, while those in other species contain more secretions from the plant itself. Pitchers also have an operculum, or lid. In some species, the operculum prevents rainwater from entering the pitcher diluting its fluids.

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Image: https://www.bhg.com/gardening/flowers/perennials/growing-pitcher-plants/

Pitcher plants generally live in areas where the soil does not have enough nutrients for typical plants to thrive. Therefore, they rely on insects to obtain sufficient amounts of what they are unable to get from the ground. However, pitcher plants still photosynthesise to produce glucose. Insects are only a replacement for substances they would otherwise have absorbed from the soil.

It is interesting to note that many species of pitcher plants are not closely related to one another, suggesting convergent evolution – different organisms independently evolved to have this particular appearance and insect-trapping ability. For example, the Australian pitcher plant is more closely related to starfruit than to other species of pitchers [7]. It’s pretty amazing how all these different pitcher plants adapted to their situation in similar ways.

So the next time you see one of these protein-guzzling plants around, do remember that they’re simply doing what they can to live their life to the fullest, just like you and me.

References:

[1]: https://www.britannica.com/plant/pitcher-plant

[2]: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/pitcher_plant.htm

[3]: https://www.botany.one/2013/10/adapted-kill-pitcher-plant-traps-prey/

[4]: https://academic-oup-com.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/aob/article/107/2/181/188441

[5]: http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150420-the-giant-plants-that-eat-meat

[6]: https://www.thenakedscientists.com/articles/questions/carnivorous-plants-can-photosynthesise-so-why-eat-flies

[7]: https://www.nature.com/news/how-plants-evolved-into-carnivores-1.21425

 

 

Award-winning video game is a dream for the nature lover

Diving. It looks so good, and costs so bad. If you’ve ever dreamed of being surrounded by colourful fishes and accidentally kicking corals (a painful memory of mine), but have been unable to for whatever reason, you still have the next best thing: a $20 video game on the Playstation 4, Microsoft Windows and Xbox One. A simple image search of the game will flood you with the happy chaos and bright colours of a thriving ocean – and you haven’t even played it yet. Players experience diving freely through pristine waters, unencumbered by oxygen tanks and ear-popping pressure. You can explore caves and swim through seagrass. You can – yes – grab hold of a dolphin and let it take you on a ride, all while the joyful calls of its pod surround you.

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Released in 2016 by developer Giant Squid, Abzû is hailed for its awe-inspiring beauty and breath-taking soundtrack, but it’s not just another pretty game for virtual tourism. It carries a message. A game like that, at a time like this, when human society is struggling to catch up with its own waste and consumption, when the environment is at breaking point, couldn’t not. Anyone who reads the news – who lives on earth – would notice the lack of trash bobbing in the water, the missing smokestacks on the horizon, and they’d get to experience what marine life would be like without human influence. That is, briefly – the game has a story to tell.

Without spoiling too much, Abzû is adamant about our duty to preserve and return life back to the oceans. But it doesn’t execute this message through guilt and blame in the way many environmental news articles and stories (deliberately or not) do. So few of us now have the privilege of meeting nature face to face, and that affects the way we see ourselves in relation to the environment. There’s no denying the awkwardness in trying to get a city dweller to care about some blue whale a million miles away that they’ve never seen. Abzû gives you a chance to fall in love with the ocean. The game features species of marine creatures from real life, telling us the names of each animal as we swim alongside it. The profound intimacy that the player gets is beyond statistics and reports and academic journals. It’s emotional.

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https://www.trustedreviews.com/reviews/abzu

Another aspect of the game that many environmentalists will appreciate is its rejection of anthropocentrism – seeing humans as the centre of the world. Neither does it swing in the other extreme. There’s a deliberate emphasis on togetherness, on the harmony between creatures that vary as dramatically as each colour of the rainbow. And that diversity includes our four-limbed, finless protagonist. At the same time, the player is constantly reminded of their staggering insignificance compared to the leviathans of the deep. Some have raised the player’s lack of control over the game as a flaw (the gameplay mechanisms are simple and repetitive), but maybe it’s the perfect metaphor for our relationship with nature. As the protagonist dives alongside a whale, looking into its eye that’s as big as her torso, it’s difficult not to think about how tiny she is. Her speed of travel underwater is frustratingly slow compared to all the marine creatures gliding effortlessly past. When she grabs hold of a fish to ride it, she goes faster, but loses all control over her direction. This all contributes to the timely reminder that we’re small, but not alone.

Whether you enter this game as an environmentalist, a marine expert or somebody who’s never been to the ocean, the story and experience are one of a kind, so don’t let anyone’s solemn analysis of its real-life relevance stop you from picking it up. That said, I highly doubt that anyone could complete this game and go on without having an extra tenderness for the ocean in their heart. Everyone’s tired of hearing and reading about environmentalism. It’s time they felt it.

Watch the official trailer here.

Source: I played the game and it was incredible.

Why boycott Kopi Luwak?

Kopi Luwak is one of the world’s most expensive coffee; one cup can cost about 80USD (109SGD). But what is Kopi Luwak? Simply put, it is coffee made from coffee beans that have been through the digestive system of the Asian palm civet (Luwak in Indonesian).

Brief process of making of Kopi Luwak

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Image from http://www.most-expensive.coffee/

Kopi Luwak was rumoured to originate in the 18th century in Indonesia, which was still under the Dutch colonial rule. At that time, the natives toiling in the coffee industry were not allowed to taste any of the coffee that they have been working to produce.  At the same time, they observed that the wild civets also ate coffee cherries, leaving undigested coffee beans in their excretions. Thus, the farmers collected these seeds, cleaned and roasted them to make their own brew of coffee.

Later, the Dutch discovered this special brew of coffee, and they found that it tasted better than what they had. It is said to be because civets only chose the ripest cherries, so coffee beans found in their faeces are uniformly of the best quality. In addition, the fermentation process and natural enzymes in the civet’s intestines break down some of the proteins in coffee beans. This results in coffee that is more aromatic, less bitter, and smoother (less acidic). Even so, the question of whether it indeed tastes better than other gourmet coffee yields varying opinions. While some say it tastes better, more feel no difference, or even say that it is worse, because it is bland (due to its lower acidity) and does not taste as complex.

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Image from http://nordiccoffeeculture.com/what-kopi-luwak-is-and-why-you-should-avoid-it/

Nevertheless, the popularity of Kopi Luwak grew rapidly, with many wanting to have a taste of this exotic (and expensive) beverage. Yet, it is difficult to find the faeces of the civets in the wild; only about 250-500kg of wild Kopi Luwak beans are produced each year, nowhere near enough for this industry to be commercially viable. As a result, farmers started to cage the civets for their precious droppings, without considering their welfare.

In the worst cases, some farm owners crammed the civets in tiny cages and exclusively fed them coffee cherries. However, wild civets are solitary, territorial animals. When forced so close to each other, especially in such poor living conditions and only allowed a limited diet, gory outcomes result: they fight with each other, chew away their own limbs, start passing blood in their faeces, and eventually die. With only coffee cherries provided to them, eating them is no longer a choice, it is their only option. Essentially, the high quality associated with Kopi Luwak is eroded. To make things worse, these civet farms even became tourist attractions, where many would come to the coffee plantation to see the civets, then enjoy a cup of Kopi Luwak.

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Image by Ulet Ifansasti, Getty Images

After so many years, what propels this industry is the high demand for Kopi Luwak. From a commercial product, it had grown to become a tourist attraction, where tourists are invited to view the captured civets, processing of coffee beans, then have a cup of Kopi Luwak. Apart from the ethicality of this practice, the authenticity of the coffee sold is also questionable. Coffee labelled Kopi Luwak may not have been anywhere close to a civet, or only contains a small percentage of the real deal, but are sold at exorbitant prices (compared to normal coffee). While it may seem fine to drink authentic coffee beans obtained from wild civets, this perception is wrong. There are no certification schemes and it is simply impossible to determine the source of coffee. If the demand does not die down, the conditions of these civets will only get worse.

Now, there is only one effective way to protect these civets: stop drinking Kopi Luwat completely.

By Shenny Goh

References

Kopi Luwak is the most expensive coffee in the world! (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.most-expensive.coffee/ (Accessed 21 Sep, 2018).

Wisotzky, M. (2017, August 1). Kopi Luwak anyone? It’s just $80 a cup. Retrieved from https://coffeewithoutlimits.com/kopi-luwak-anyone-just-80-cup/ (Accessed 21 Sep, 2018).

Animal Coffee (n.d.). The History of Kopi Luwak. Retrieved from http://coffeeroastersdirect.com/the-history-of-kopi-luwak/ (Accessed 21 Sep, 2018).

Kolbu, C. (2015, April 22). What Kopi Luwak is and why you should avoid it. Retrieved from http://nordiccoffeeculture.com/what-kopi-luwak-is-and-why-you-should-avoid-it/ (Accessed 21 Sep, 2018).

Wild, T. (2013, September 13). Civet coffee: Why it’s time to cut the crap. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2013/sep/13/civet-coffee-cut-the-crap (Accessed 21 Sep, 2018).

Bale, R. (2016, April 29). The Disturbing Secret Behind the World’s Most Expensive Coffee. Retrieved from https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/04/160429-kopi-luwak-captive-civet-coffee-Indonesia/ (Accessed 21 Sep, 2018).